impedes prostate cancer angiogenesis anti-inflammatory Antiangiogenic

Wedelia chinensis - Peng Qi Yu
Oridonin from Rabdosime rubescentis - Dong Ling Cao
Baicalin from Scutellariae baicalensis - radix Huang Qin
Ginsenoside Rg1 from San Qi
Chrysanthemum morifolium - Ju Hua
Ganoderol B from Ganoderma lucidum, sporophore Ling Zhi

† Daily Value not established.
Other Ingredients
Gelatin, titanium dioxide


Rabdosia rubescens / dong ling cao

The cytostatic and cytotoxic effects of oridonin (Rubescenin), a diterpenoid from Rabdosia rubescens, on tumor cells of different lineage.

Rabdosia rubescens is a herbal medicine used to treat esophageal cancer in China. In this study, the sesquiterpene oridonin, an isoprenoid, was isolated from Rabdosia rubescens. Mass spectroscopy and carbon 13 NMR spectroscopy were used to identify the structure of the purified compound. It was then evaluated for biological activity against human cell lines derived from prostate (DU-145, LNCaP), breast (MCF-7), and ovarian (A2780 and PTX10) cancers. Oridonin exhibited anti-proliferative activity toward all cancer cell lines tested, with an IC50 estimated by the MTT cell viability assay ranging from 5.8+/-2.3 to 11.72+/-4.8 microM. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that oridonin induced a G1 phase arrest in androgen receptor-positive LNCaP cells containing wt p53, while it blocked the cell cycle at G2 and M phases in androgen receptor-negative DU-145 cells with mutated p53; the arrest in M was verified by examination of cell morphology and by the increased frequency of cells with Ser-10 phosphorylated histone H3. The increased incidence of apoptosis, identified by characteristic changes in cell morphology, was seen in tumor lines treated with oridonin. Notably, at concentrations that induced apoptosis among tumor cells, oridonin failed to induce apoptosis in cultures of normal human fibroblasts. Western blot analysis was used to determine the protein expression of cancer suppressor genes, p53 (wt) and Bax, and the proto-oncogene, Bcl-2 in LNCaP cells following treatment with oridonin. Oridonin up-regulated p53 and Bax and down-regulated Bcl-2 expression in a dose-dependent manner. To further explore the possible interaction between oridonin and DNA, its absorption spectrum was measured in the presence and absence of double stranded (ds) DNA. Spectral shifts and an increase in absorption band intensity were observed indicating interaction of oridonin with DNA bases. The nature of the binding is not clear at present though no evidence of histone H2AX phosphorylation on Ser-139 was apparent in DU-145 cells treated with oridonin that would indicate the induction of ds DNA breaks. In conclusion, oridonin inhibits cancer cell growth in a cell cycle specific manner and shifts the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins in favor of apoptosis. The present data suggest that further studies are warranted to assess the potential of oridonin in cancer prevention and/or treatment.

Chen S, Gao J, Halicka HD, Huang X, Traganos F, Darzynkiewicz Z. Int J Oncol. 2005 Mar;26(3):579-88.

Ponicidin and oridonin are responsible for the antiangiogenic activity of Rabdosia rubescens, a constituent of the herbal supplement PC SPES.

Antiangiogenic activity has been identified in an aqueous EtOH extract of Rabdosia rubescens, a component of the dietary supplement PC SPES. Bioassay-guided fractionation using a novel in vitro human endothelial cell-based assay for angiogenesis afforded the diterpenoids ponicidin (1) and oridonin (2), with significant antiangiogenic activity at subcytotoxic concentrations, suggesting that these constituents may strongly contribute to the demonstrated clinical efficacy of PC SPES as a treatment for advanced prostate cancer.

Meade-Tollin LC, Wijeratne EM, Cooper D, Guild M, Jon E, Fritz A, Zhou GX, Whitesell L, Liang JY, Gunatilaka AA. J Nat Prod. 2004 Jan;67(1):2-4.

Oridonin induces growth inhibition and apoptosis of a variety of human cancer cells.

PC-SPES is an eight herbal mixture that was shown to have activity against prostate cancer. Recently, we purified oridonin from Rabdosia rubescens, one component of PC-SPES, by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The ability of oridonin to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells was examined by MTT assay. Oridonin effectively inhibited the proliferation of a wide variety of cancer cells including those from prostate (LNCaP, DU145, PC3), breast (MCF-7, MDA-MB231), non-small cell lung (NSCL) (NCI-H520, NCI-H460, NCI-H1299) cancers, acute promyelocytic leukemia (NB4), and glioblastoma multiforme (U118, U138) with ED50s ranging from 1.8 to 7.5 micro g/ml. TUNEL assay and cell cycle analysis showed that oridonin induced apoptosis and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. In addition, expression of p21waf1 was induced in LNCaP and NCI-H520 cells in a p53-dependent manner. Interestingly, when p53 was suppressed by over-expression of E6 from human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV-16), these cells lost their sensitivity to oridonin-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis. Taken together, oridonin inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells via apoptosis and cell cycle arrest with p53 playing a central role in several cancer types which express the wild-type p53 gene. Oridonin may be a novel, adjunctive therapy for a large variety of malignancies and probably represents one of the major, active components of PC-SPES.

Ikezoe T, Chen SS, Tong XJ, Heber D, Taguchi H, Koeffler HP. Int J Oncol. 2003 Oct;23(4):1187-93.

Wedelia chinensis/peng qi ju

Herbal extract of Wedelia chinensis attenuates androgen receptor activity and orthotopic growth of prostate cancer in nude mice.

PURPOSE: Wedelia chinensis is a common ingredient of anti-inflammatory herbal medicines in Taiwan and southern China. Inflammation is involved in promoting tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. This study aims to test the biological effects in vivo of W. chinensis extract on prostate cancer.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The in vivo efficacy and mechanisms of action of oral administration of a standardized extract of W. chinensis were analyzed in animals bearing a subcutaneous or orthotopic prostate cancer xenograft.
RESULTS: Exposure of prostate cancer cells to W. chinensis extract induced apoptosis selectively in androgen receptor (AR)-positive prostate cancer cells and shifted the proportion in each phase of cell cycle toward G(2)-M phase in AR-negative prostate cancer cells. Oral herbal extract (4 or 40 mg/kg/d for 24-28 days) attenuated the growth of prostate tumors in nude mice implanted at both subcutaneous (31% and 44%, respectively) and orthotopic (49% and 49%, respectively) sites. The tumor suppression effects were associated with increased apoptosis and lower proliferation in tumor cells as well as reduced tumor angiogenesis. The antitumor effect of W. chinensis extract was correlated with accumulation of the principle active compounds wedelolactone, luteolin, and apigenin in vivo.
CONCLUSION: Anticancer action of W. chinensis extract was due to three active compounds that inhibit the AR signaling pathway. Oral administration of W. chinensis extract impeded prostate cancer tumorigenesis. Future studies of W. chinensis for chemoprevention or complementary medicine against prostate cancer in humans are thus warranted.

Tsai CH, Lin FM, Yang YC, Lee MT, Cha TL, Wu GJ, Hsieh SC, Hsiao PW. Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Sep 1;15(17):5435-44. Epub 2009 Aug 18.

Compounds from Wedelia chinensis synergistically suppress androgen activity and growth in prostate cancer cells.

Chronic inflammation can augment tumor development in various types of cancers, including prostate cancer (PCa). Reduction of inflammation is therefore an important anticancer therapeutic opportunity. Here, we report four anti-proliferative phytocompounds in Wedelia chinensis, an oriental herbal medicine, identified through their ability to modulate the androgen receptor (AR) activation of transcription from prostate-specific antigen promoter in PCa cells. The 50% inhibition concentration values of indole-3-carboxylaldehyde, wedelolactone, luteolin and apigenin, were 34.9, 0.2, 2.4 and 9.8 muM, respectively. A formula that combined the phytocompounds in the same proportions as in the herbal extract decreased the dosage of each compound required to achieve maximal AR inhibition. In correlation with the AR suppression effect, these active compounds specifically inhibited the growth of AR-dependent PCa cells and as a combination formula they also synergistically suppressed growth in AR-dependent PCa cells. Our study has identified synergistic effects of active compounds in W. chinensis and demonstrated their potential in PCa prevention and therapy. The paradigm of multiple activities and synergism is a useful framework to investigate the therapeutic effects of whole extracts from assorted medicinal plant species.

Lin FM, Chen LR, Lin EH, Ke FC, Chen HY, Tsai MJ, Hsiao PW. Carcinogenesis. 2007 Dec;28(12):2521-9. Epub 2007 Oct 17.

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