Matrine inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of the androgen‑independent prostate cancer cell line PC-3.
Current strategies to treat androgen-independent prostate cancer are associated with a number of challenges and are not yet curative. Matrine is a naturally occurring alkaloid extracted from the Chinese herb Sophora flavescens. Matrine has shown anti-proliferative properties in a number of types of cancer, including breast, gastric, lung and pancreatic tumors. Matrine was also found to promote apoptosis and inhibit invasion of cancer cells. We evaluated the antitumor effects of matrine on androgen-independent PC-3 prostate cancer cells. The effects of matrine on cell cycle progression and apoptosis of PC-3 cells were tested. Matrine-treated PC-3 cells underwent G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. There was a significant reduction in the number of S phase and G2/M phase cells in the treated group when compared to untreated cells. Flow cytometry, as well as Annexin-V/PI staining, showed a significant, dose-dependent increase in the number of early, as well as late, stage apoptotic cells in matrine-treated cells compared to untreated cells. There was also an increase in the number of necrotic cells in the matrine-treated group when compared to untreated cells. Matrine treatment resulted in increased levels of caspase-3 and Bax and decreased levels of Bcl-2. Our data suggest that matrine inhibits the proliferation of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells by causing G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and promoting apoptosis. Matrine‑induced apoptosis was mediated by downregulation of Bcl-2/Bax ratios and upregulation of caspase-3 levels. Based on our data, we suggest that matrine may be a novel addition to the current arsenal of strategies used to treat androgen-independent prostate cancer.
hang P, Wang Z, Chong T, Ji Z. Mol Med Report. 2012 Mar;5(3):783-7. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2011.701. Epub 2011 Dec 9.

Phenolic compounds from the whole plants of Gentiana rhodantha (Gentianaceae).
Gentiana rhodantha Franch. ex Hemsl. (Gentianaceae), an annual herb widely distributed in the southwest of China, has been medicinally used for the treatment of inflammation, cholecystitis, and tuberculosis by the local people of its growing areas. Chemical investigation on the whole plants led to the identification of eight new phenolic compounds, rhodanthenones A-D (1-4, resp.), apigenin 7-O-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-glucopyranoside (5), 1,2-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzene 1-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), 1,2-dihydroxy-4,6-dimethoxybenzene 1-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), and methyl 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoate (8), together with eleven known compounds, 9-19. Their structures were determined on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and cytotoxicity tests against five human cancer cell lines showed that only rhodanthenone D (4) and mangiferin (12) exhibited 18.4 and 13.4% of AChE inhibitory effects at a concentration of 10(-4) M, respectively, while compounds 1-5 and the known xanthones lancerin (11), mangiferin (12), and neomangiferin (13) displayed no cytotoxicity at a concentration of 40 μM.
Xu M, Zhang M, Wang D, Yang CR, Zhang YJ. Chem Biodivers. 2011 Oct;8(10):1891-900. doi: 10.1002/cbdv.201000220.

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