Antitumor effects of (1→3)-β-d-glucan and (1→6)-β-d-glucanpurified from newly cultivated mushroom,  Hatakeshimeji (Lyophyllum decastes Sing.),
Eleven polysaccharides were isolated from a hot-water extract of fruiting bodies of Lyophyllum decastes Sing. by ion-exchange chromatography and gel permeation chromatography. Three polysaccharides (IV-1, IV-2, and IV-3) composed mainly of glucose showed marked antitumor activities against Sarcoma 180 and their average molecular weights were 305 kDa,  130 kDa and 14 kDa,  respectively. From methylation analyses and 13C-NMR spectra,  it was suggested that IV-1 was a (1→3)-β-d-glucan-type polysaccharide,  IV-3 was a (1→6)-β-d-glucan-type polysaccharide,  and IV-2 was a (1→3, 1→6)-β-d-glucan-type polysaccharide or a mixture of both polysaccharides. Increases in the number of peritoneal macrophages and third component of complement (C3)-positive fluorescent cells in mice treated with IV-1 suggested that the inhibitory effect on tumor growth is due to immunological host-mediated mechanisms.
Yuuichi Ukawa,  Hitoshi Ito,  Makoto Hisamatsu. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. Volume 90,  Issue 1,  2000,  Pages 98–104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1389-1723(00)80041-9

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